A cognitive account of situated communication
An organism may use misinformation, knowingly through deception or unknowingly as in the case of camouflageto gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders e.
In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation.
In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques especially functional magnetic resonance imaging have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate corticeswhile truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation relative to deception.
Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention to deceive.
While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Copyright notice. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract An organism may use misinformation, knowingly through deception or unknowingly as in the case of camouflageto gain advantage in a competitive environment.
Baddeley AD. The capacity for generating information by randomization. Q J Exp Psychol. Executive control, willed actions, and nonconscious processing. Hum Brain Mapp. Behavioral effects of sequential and one-stage ablations of orbital prefrontal cortex in the monkey.
Exp Neurol. Sex and personality traits influence the difference between time taken to tell the truth or lie.
Percept Mot Skills. The truth will out: interrogative polygraphy "lie detection" with event-related brain potentials. Other minds in the brain: a functional imaging study of "theory of mind" in story comprehension. Lies and liars: psychiatric aspects of prevarication.
Am J Psychiatry. Willed action and the prefrontal cortex in man: a study with PET. Proc Biol Sci. Functional imaging of 'theory of mind'. Trends Cogn Sci. Neural correlates of different types of deception: an fMRI investigation.In communication networkscognitive network CN is a new type of data network that makes use of cutting edge technology from several research areas i.
An information theory account of cognitive control
Cognitive network is different from cognitive radio CR as it covers all the layers of the OSI model not only layers 1 and 2 as with CR . The first definition of the cognitive network was provided by Theo Kantor in his doctoral research at KTH, The Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, including a presentation in June of the cognitive network as the network with memory. Theo was a student of Chip Maguire who also was advising Joe Mitola, the originator of cognitive radio.
Mitola focused on cognition in the nodes, while Kantor focused on cognition in the network. Mitola's Licentiate thesis, published in August, includes the following quote "Over time, the [Radio Knowledge Representation Language] RKRL-empowered network can learn to distinguish a feature of the natural environment that does not match the models.
It could declare the errors to a cognitive network. IBM's autonomic networks challenge of instigated the introduction of a cognition cycle into networks. Cognitive radio, Kantor's cognitive networks, and IBM's autonomic networks provided the foundation for the parallel evolution of cognitive wireless networks and other cognitive networks.
InPetri Mahonen, currently at RWTH, Aachen, and a member of Mitola's doctoral committee organized the first international workshop on cognitive wireless networks at Dagstuhl, Germany. One of the attempts to define the concept of cognitive network was made in by Thomas et al.
A Cognitive Account of Aesthetics
Manoj et al. A survey  and an edited book  reveal some of these efforts. The Knowledge Plane is "a pervasive system within the network that builds and maintains high level models of what the network is supposed to do, in order to provide services and advice to other elements of the network".
The concept of large scale cognitive network was further made in by Song,  where such Knowledge Plan is clearly defined for large scale wireless networks as the knowledge about the availability of radio spectrum and wireless stations. Thomas et al. This loop, the cognition loop, senses the environment, plans actions according to input from sensors and network policies, decides which scenario fits best its end-to-end purpose using a reasoning engine, and finally acts on the chosen scenario as discussed in the previous section.
The system learns from the past situations, plans, decisions, actions and uses this knowledge to improve the decisions in the future. This definition of CN does not explicitly mention the knowledge of the network; it only describes the cognitive loop and adds end-to-end goals that would distinguish it from CR or so called cognitive layers. This definition of CN seems to be incomplete since it lacks knowledge which is an important component of a cognitive system as discussed in,     and.
The knowledge plane needs at least two elements: 1 a representation of relevant knowledge about the scope device, homogeneous network, heterogeneous network, etc. Furthermore, in  and,  a detailed cross-layer network architecture was proposed for CNs, where CN is interpreted as a network that can utilize both radio spectrum and wireless station resources opportunistically, based upon the knowledge of such resource availability.
Since CR has been developed as a radio transceiver that can utilize spectrum channels opportunistically dynamic spectrum accessthe CN is therefore a network that can opportunistically organize CRs.
The CN architecture is based on a new definition of wireless linkage. The new abstract wireless links are redefined as arbitrary mutual co-operations among a set of neighboring proximity wireless nodes. In comparison, traditional wireless networking relies on point-to-point "virtual wired-links" with a predetermined pair of wireless nodes and allotted spectrum. Wireless link modules provide system designers with reusable open network abstractions, where the modules can be individually updated, or new modules may be added into the wireless link layer.
High modularity and flexibility could be essential for middleware or application developments. EWI is also an organizing-style architecture, where the system layer organizes the wireless link modules at the wireless link layer ; and peer wireless link modules can exchange module management information by padding packet headers to the system-layer information units. Five types of wireless link modules were proposed, including broadcast, peer-to-peer unicast, multicast, to-sink unicast, and data aggregation, respectively.
Other arbitrary types of modules may be added, establishing other types of abstract wireless links without limitation. For example, the broadcast module simply disseminates data packets to surrounding nodes. The peer-to-peer unicast module can deliver data packets from source to destination over multiple wireless hops.Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline.
Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Bandura Published Psychology Media Psychology. Social cognitive theory provides an agentic conceptual framework within which to analyze the determinants and psychosocial mechanisms through which symbolic communication influences human thought, affect and action. Communications systems operate through two pathways. In the direct pathway, they promote changes by informing, enabling, motivating, and guiding participants.
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Cognitive Communication Disorders
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Attitudes towards athletes: Media influences. References Publications referenced by this paper. Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. View 7 excerpts, references background.Cognitive-communication therapy is crucial for helping brain injury patients regain conversation skills.
Cognition — or thinking skills — are often overlooked during speech therapy. However, they are just as important as the physical ability to produce words. Today you will learn what cognitive communication is plus some of the best cognitive-communication activities that you can do at home. Speaking is a complex activity that involves multiple areas of the brain.
Besides the ability to form words with your mouth, several other skills are needed during a conversation, including:. The frontal lobe plays an especially crucial role in communication. In particular, it helps you understand the more subtle aspects of conversation, such as:. After a brain injury, all these skills can become impaired. Therefore, even if a person has no difficulty with the physical side of speech, they can still struggle to communicate effectively.
Cognitive-communication activities are designed to help patients strengthen the cognitive abilities that will allow them to speak more fluently. Rather, the goal is to encourage the patient to generate their own responses. To practice RET, the speech therapist will use a set of images depicting an action, such as a man pushing a lawnmower.
Then the therapist asks a series of wh- questions what, where, who, etc… to help the patient expand on their answer. One good naming therapy exercise is to have someone else write down several general categories such as tools, animals, plants, countries, occupation, foods, sports, etc. Then try to remember and name verbally or in writing as many items in that category as possible.
For caregivers, if the person with brain injury is stumped, you can give hints. You can also work on comparing and contrasting different items.
For example, talk about how an apple and an orange are similar and how they are different. If this is too easy, try naming all the ways that a trumpet and a clarinet are different. The CT Speech and Cognitive Therapy app contains naming exercises along withother exercises to improve these skills. For this activity, one person should tap out a simple, two-step rhythm several times with their hand on the table tap-delay-tap-tap.
The person with the injury should try to match the rhythm. If this seems too easy, both of you should turn your chairs around so you are not facing each other.
This way you can only focus on your auditory processing. While this exercise might not seem related to communication, it will help you improve your attention skills, which is crucial during a conversation. This activity helps you improve your planning, comprehension, and reasoning skills, which are necessary for communication. First, have someone else write down the steps to complete a certain activity, such as watching TV.
But make sure that these steps are not in the correct order. Your job is to rearrange the steps so that they are in the correct order.Our ability to efficiently process information and generate appropriate responses depends on the processes collectively called cognitive control. Despite a considerable focus in the literature on the cognitive control of information processing, neural mechanisms underlying control are still unclear, and have not been characterized by considering the quantity of information to be processed.
A novel and comprehensive account of cognitive control is proposed using concepts from information theory, which is concerned with communication system analysis and the quantification of information. This account treats the brain as an information-processing entity where cognitive control and its underlying brain networks play a pivotal role in dealing with conditions of uncertainty. This hypothesis and theory article justifies the validity and properties of such an account and relates experimental findings to the frontoparietal network under the framework of information theory.
The brain is constantly bombarded with more information from multiple sensory channels than it can process. A critical challenge that it must address is to ensure that only goal-relevant information reaches the level of focused attention. However, information that does not reach that level cannot and should not be fully excluded from ever reaching it because the information may have behavioral relevance. Therefore, there is a need for a dynamic control mechanism that permits the flexible allocation of resources to process subjectively important information.
Cognitive control refers to processes that flexibly and adaptively allocate mental resources to permit the dynamic selection of thoughts and actions in response to context-specific goals and intentions Posner and Snyder, ; Miller, ; Badre, ; Kouneiher et al. Behaviorally, cognitive control is studied by using tasks where there is an inherent conflict elicited by the stimuli or responses, for example, in Stroop Stroop, ; MacLeod, and flanker Eriksen and Eriksen, tasks.
The magnitude of this conflict effect is indexed by the difference in reaction time RT and accuracy across conditions with and without competing stimulus dimensions e. Conflict processing is usually accompanied by prolonged RT and increased error rate e.
Although conflict effects are typically used in the study of cognitive control, I argue that they constitute a special case of more general informational uncertainty.
In what follows, I will take conflict to reflect a high level of entropy average uncertainty over competing choices, actions, or policies.
This is to distinguish it from the corresponding uncertainty over states of the world that is resolved through perceptual inference. In other words, I will be focusing on the uncertainty about what to do in a given context—assuming that the context has been estimated or inferred. The general neural circuitry underlying cognitive control is still not completely known, but activity in the anterior cingulate cortex ACC has been consistently demonstrated in functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI studies [and also studies employing positron emission tomography PETelectroencephalography EEGand other imaging techniques] involving tasks that invoke cognitive control.
There is reliable functional activation of the ACC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex DLPFC in tasks requiring the detection and resolution of conflict e. Consequently, at least two major theories of cognitive control relate ACC activity to the monitoring of conflict Carter et al. Contrary to these theories, I argue that ACC, anterior insular cortex AIand other brain areas of the frontoparietal network process uncertainty, and will demonstrate that conflict is a special case of increased uncertainty.
Before I discuss the role of information theory in cognitive control, I will briefly review its key concepts. In Shannon's information theory Shannon and Weaver,information is defined as entropy, a measure of uncertainty or freedom of choice when selecting a message e. Entropy is in units of bits, because of the base 2 logarithm.Don't have an account? This chapter asks the question: Why is it that only human beings spend time and effort to produce and acquire aesthetic experience?
The chapter focuses on the rote of juxtapositions, bisociations, and blends in human cognition, and proposes that symbolic abilities are a critical basis for these kinds of mental operations. Symbolic juxtapositions force further juxtapositions of correlated emotional responses, which are presumably independent of the logic of symbolic juxtaposition.
These symbolic juxtapositions can thereby induce emergent and highly novel emotional experiences. In art, we recognize two key elements: an extraction from direct instrumental communication, and a duplicitous logic of representation.
Consistent with their being capacities that require considerable training and cultural support to develop, there is wide individual and cultural variability in artistic phenomena. Yet despite this cultural boundedness and a fundamental break with biology, there is surprising species universality as well. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
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Username Please enter your Username. Password Please enter your Password. Forgot password? You could not be signed in, please check and try again. Sign in with your library card Please enter your library card number. If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian. All rights reserved. Powered by: Safari Books Online.Situated cognition is a theory that posits that knowing is inseparable from doing  by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.
Under this assumption, which requires an epistemological shift from empiricism, situativity theorists suggest a model of knowledge and learning that requires thinking on the fly rather than the storage and retrieval of conceptual knowledge.
In essence, cognition cannot be separated from the context. Instead knowing exists, in situinseparable from context, activity, people, culture, and language. Therefore, learning is seen in terms of an individual's increasingly effective performance across situations rather than in terms of an accumulation of knowledge, since what is known is co-determined by the agent and the context.
This perspective rejects mind—body dualismbeing conceptually similar to functional contextualismand B. Skinner 's behavior analysis. Lucy Suchman 's work on situated action at Xerox Labs  was instrumental in popularizing the idea that an actor's understanding of how to perform work results from reflecting on interactions with the social and material e.
Grounded Cognition, concerned with the role of simulations and embodiment in cognition, encompasses Cognitive Linguistics, Situated Action, Simulation and Social Simulation theories. Research has contributed to the understanding of embodied language, memory, and the representation of knowledge.
Situated cognition draws a variety of perspectives, from an anthropological study of human behavior in the context of technology-mediated work,  or within communities of practice  to the ecological psychology of the perception-action cycle  and intentional dynamics,  and even research on robotics with work on autonomous agents at NASA and elsewhere e.
Early attempts to define situated cognition focused on contrasting the emerging theory with information processing theories dominant in cognitive psychology. Recently theorists have recognized a natural affinity between situated cognition, New Literacy Studies and new literacies research Gee, This connection is made by understanding that situated cognition maintains that individuals learn through experiences.
It could be stated that these experiences, and more importantly the mediators that affect attention during these experiences is affected by the tools, technologies and languages used by a socio-cultural group and the meanings given to these by the collective group. New literacies research examines the context and contingencies that language and tool use by individuals and how this changes as the Internet and other communication technologies affect literacy.
James J. Gibson introduced the idea of affordances as part of a relational account of perception. Central to his proposal of an ecological psychology was the notion of affordances.
Gibson proposed that in any interaction between an agent and the environment, inherent conditions or qualities of the environment allow the agent to perform certain actions with the environment. It is important to note that Gibson's notion of direct perception as an unmediated process of noticing, perceiving, and encoding specific attributes from the environment, has long been challenged by proponents of a more category-based model of perception.
This focus on agent-situation interactions in ecological psychology was consistent with the situated cognition program of researchers such as James G. Greeno, who appreciated Gibson's apparent rejection of the factoring assumptions underlying experimental psychology. Perception and action were co-determined by the effectivities and affordances, which acted 'in the moment' together.
This view is consistent with Norman's theory of "perceived affordances," which emphasizes the agent's perception of an object's utility as opposed to focusing on the object itself.
An interesting question is the relationship between affordances and mental representations as set forth in a more cognitivist perspective. The work of Gibson in the field of visual perception greatly influences situated cognition. Instead the viewer perceives and picks up on the infinite amount of information available in the environment.
Specifically, an agent perceives affordances by discovering the variants, what changes, and more importantly the invariants, what does not change across different situations. Given a specific intention or intentional set[ clarification needed ] perceptions of invariants are co-determined by the agent and the affordances of the environment, and are then built upon over time.
Situated cognition and ecological psychology perspectives emphasize perception and propose that memory plays a significantly diminished role in the learning process. Rather, focus is on the continuous tuning of perceptions and actions across situations based on the affordances of the environment and the interaction of the agent within that environment Greeno, Representations are not stored and checked against past knowledge, but are created and interpreted in activity Clancey, Situated cognition understands memory as an interaction with the world, bounded by meaningful situations, that brings an agent toward a specified goal intention.